The 14th century in Italy is described as Trecento in art and literature. What is meant by the term, above all, the Protorenaissance, ie the first tendencies in architecture as well as in painting, imitated the ancient models. These tendencies can be demonstrated mainly in architecture, with the conceptual design and the marble cladding of buildings clearly mimicking ancient models, but this became the central design theme only several centuries later, that is, in the Renaissance. Other centuries related to the Italian Renaissance are called by art historians Duecento, Trecento, Quattrocento, Cinquecento and Seicento.
The term goes back to the Italian word trecento, which can be translated with three hundred. This is, therefore, a shortening because it is not the year 300 but 1300, ie the 14th century (1300-1399), and consequently the late Protestant Renaissance in Italy. This is, however, not a current that can be found in all of Italy, but above all in Tuscany, in Provence and in Central Italy. The buildings of that time often served as a source of inspiration in the later Renaissance.
In terms of architecture, the church of San Miniato al Monte (from 1013, pictures), the Baptistery of San Giovanni (consecration in 1059, pictures) and the Leaning Tower of Pisa can be regarded as examples of the buildings of that period. It is noteworthy that these monuments were built before the 14th century, but still illustrate the architectural features of Trecento and Duecento. The Leaning Tower of Pisa is a building of the Trecento
In music it was the Trecento Madrigal, which developed in the 14th century as an independent form. The term is a usually two-part, rarely three-part, unaccompanied piece of vocal, which is usually determined by secular themes. As it was not particularly demanding, it was not considered a noble form and was described by Francesco da Barberino (1264 – 1348), an Italian poet, as rough and disorganized singing.
At the end of the 14th century, and especially at the beginning of the fifteenth century, the musical madrigal as a musical practice fell into oblivion and was transformed into a purely literary form. In the literature, the madrigal is an Italian poem. As a rule, the madrigal consists of two or three punches with three double verses and a subsequent refrain of two lines, which are paired in pairs.
Art in Trecento
Italian art of the 14th century is regarded as the forerunner of the later Renaissance. As a result, characteristics which are characteristic of the later epoch are found here. The most important aspect is the portrayal of the human being, which is presented in a more vivid and partly three-dimensionality. A typical work of the time can be the lamentation of Christ by Giotto di Bondone (1266-1337).
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