There are three forms of the adjective in German: the positive (basic form), the comparative (1st increment) and the superlative (2nd increment). The superlative is the highest form of the word. The comparative compares two things (X is greater than Y), the superlative compares a thing with several things, or the whole, and forms the highest level (Z is greatest).
The term goes back to the Latin gradus superlativus and means the third degree, ie the highest degree, when comparing adjectives. As a comparison derived from the Latin compare (~ compare), the increase in adjectives is called in linguistics. Let us look at the increase of the irregular adjective for the sake of illustration.
Jonas is great (1.80m). Peter is bigger (1.87m). Walther is the largest (1.94m).
The above example shows the three forms of comparison. The basic form, ie the positive, is large. The positive is used whenever the adjective is used without a degree specification. The comparative is the higher degree, that is, the first increase, the adjective. By means of comparative, it can be expressed that two adjectives are different from each other: Peter is greater than Jonas.
The superlative is the last term in the above example and in the increase of the adjective. The superlative indicates that a thing (person, fact, object) has the highest degree of a property or feature when compared to other things. In this case, Walther is the largest and therefore of course bigger than Jonas and Peter. So there is nothing that surpasses this property.
Note: The possible increase of the adjective in German is thus tripartite. According to this scheme, by the way, the stylistic means of the climax is often constructed, while the anticlimax is based on a reduction.
Education: Comparative and superlative
The two forms of increase are formed differently. However, comparative and superlative are almost always the same. However, there are some exceptions and peculiarities.
The comparative arises when the basic form of the adjective is inserted. As a rule, the comparative is formed with one as. It is important that the comparative is always declined when it is immediately before a reference (1). If this is not the case, it is not declined (2).
(1) There are more beautiful trees than in the construction market.
(2) Flowers are more beautiful than trees.
In the above example sentences, the comparative is once in front of the noun, and in the second sentence another word is in between. Consequently, in the second theorem is not declined, but in the first theorem, and therefore has to adapt to the case and the number of the noun.
The superlative can be initiated with on or the particular article. If it is formed with an a, if the basic form of the adjective is established, the superlative is formed with the definite article, followed by the adjective end.
(1) Peter is the most beautiful.
(2) Peter is the most beautiful man.
The above examples illustrate the superlative formation. In the first theorem the maximal form is formed by means of the word am, so the ending of the adjective is sten, whereas the second sentence introduces the superlative through the definite article. The adjective end ste.
Comparity of the adjective regularly irregular
Positive (basic) nice
Comparatively (1st increase) more beautifully
Superlative (2nd increase) most beautifully best
Irregular adjectives and exceptions
The rules of comparative and superlative described above, however, have some exceptions. These relate to irregular adjectives; Adjectives ending in d / t or s / ß / x / z; monosyllable adjectives, and also the e in the case of non-concurrent adjectives. These exceptions are now considered.
(1) Property names ending with the letters d / t or s / ß / x / z form the top form (superlative) mostly with the adjective endings (eg: fat – fatter – the fattest, neat – nicest – the nicest ). The additional e serves as a pronunciation aid.
(2) Some property terms form superlative and comparative with an umlaut. This is often the case with monosyllable property terms. The vowel of the basic form changes into an umlaut (eg cold – colder – the coldest, wiser – wiser – the wisest).
(3) If the basic form of the adjective ends in el or bel and is also unstressed, the e is omitted in the formation of the comparative. At the highest level, however, it is still preserved (eg nobility – nobler – noblest). This does not apply if the ending is emphasized or the adjective ends with ell (eg actual – current – most recent).
(4) Furthermore, there are adjectives which are irregular. The comparative and the superlative have to be learned here simply, since the rules presented are applicable, but the Gru