Word types, including word classes or spells, are one way of categorizing the individual words of a language. This means that they are grouped together because of their commonality. In German, there are ten types of words. One differentiates between variable (inflectable) and immutable (non-inflectable) types of words. In German, verbs, articles, nouns, pronouns, numerals, and adjectives are inflected; Adverbs, interjections, conjunctions, prepositions.
Flectible means that the word can be declined or conjugated depending on the context. These words can therefore assume different forms and are variable, which is why the word stem is changeable. If a word is not inflectable, it remains the same and never changes.
Note: In the following, we would like to introduce you to the individual types of words in detail and give further examples of their use as well as some special features of the types of words.
Verbs describe activities as well as events, which is why they are also referred to in German as activity words, tu [n] words and time words. They are subdivided into strong (irregular) and weak (regular) verbs, with mixed forms. As regards their use, we distinguish between full verbs, auxiliary verbs, and modal verbs.
Klaus reads a book.
In the above example the verb is read. Reads is the 3rd person singular of the verb read. The verb specifies what someone is doing, which can also be seen in principle. Verbs are also inflectable, so they change, which means that they can be conjugated.
Conjugate means that the word stem of the word type can be changed or affixes can be attached to adapt the verb to the respective sentence parts or to express particular properties of the sentence. If the verb is not conjugated, it is the infinitive of the verb. Let’s look at an example.
The above table shows the difference between strong and weak verbs. Weak verbs form the preterite with? – (e) t ??, where the root vowel does not change. If the participle II is formed by weak verbs, this is done by the prefix (example:? Buy, buy, buy?).
For strong verbs, however, the root vowel sometimes changes. In the preterite, and partly in Partizip II, they bear a different vowel than in the infinitive. This change is not regular, which is why they are also referred to as irregular verbs.
Full verbs, auxiliary verbs, modal verbs
The predicate can form only sentences in one sentence. They are opposed to the auxiliary verbs and modal verbs, which can only form the propositional element of the predicate together with other verbs.
Jonas drives a bicycle.
Auxiliary verbs are verbs that can express grammatical features, such as tempus or mode, in combination with a full verb. In German, there are, and will be, auxiliary grammatical constructions.
In the evening it was still raining.
Modal verbs are allowed, may, may, need, should and want. These modal verbs enable the content of a statement to be changed. It is an enormous big difference whether a person wants or wants to do something.
I want to eat cereal.
I have to eat cereal.
Nouns, including nouns and main words, denote things, creatures, and abstractions (eg the table, the child, the love). Nouns are capitalized and are usually used with their article. Nouns are declined and are therefore inflectable. Moreover, they are divided into concrete (the house, the tree) and abstract (the courage, the happiness) nouns.
The dog eats a bone.
This example contains two nouns: dog and bone. Both concepts are things in the widest sense and are also written up. Furthermore, they are characterized by an article (the, one). Such an article fulfills an essential function in this type of speech: it marks genus (grammatical gender), number (singular, plural), and case (case). An example.
The article is a companion. This means that it is always used together with a noun (noun). Moreover, it has no real meaning in terms of content, but describes the noun closer. Since nouns are inflectable and their companion always has to adapt to them, articles can also be inflected: articles can therefore be declined.
He reads a book
The above example includes an indeterminate article (on). and accompanies the noun (book) in the example theorem. Articles are subdivided into articles, indefinite articles, demonstrative articles, possessive articles, indefinite articles as well as interrogative articles and null articles.
Certain article: A particular thing from a set of things, and emphasizes it.
Examples: I need the car; I am looking for the woman for life.
indefinite article: Identifies any thing from the set.
Examples: I need a car; I am looking for a woman for life.
Demonstrative articles: Usually accompanies a noun that is actually visible.
Examples: I need that car; I’m looking for this woman.
Possessive articles: Shows how the ownership conditions are.
Examples: I need your car; I’m looking for my wife.
Indefinite articles: Indefinite pronouns can occur in the form of a pronoun or an article. Then they are called indefinite articles. They are used to specify an indeterminate number. They are used when something is generalized and not specifically named.
Examples: Everyone needs love; Some questions are pointless.
Null articles: Some nouns do not require an article in the sentence, which then becomes omitted.
Examples: I dream of money and power; I play piano.
Adjectives denote a property or a state and are therefore a kind of word which describes how something is. For this reason, adjectives are also referred to as property words. They are labeled and are inflectable. They can be used differently.
Klaus reads a beautiful book.
In the above example, the book, which Klaus reads nicely. Beautiful is the property of the Nomens book. The word type thus indicates how the book is and what state it has. In this case, the adjective is used attributively. Adjectives can be used attributively, predicatively and nominally.
attributive: A handsome man.
predicative: The man is beautiful.
nominalized: The most beautiful is standing there behind!
Attributeally means that the adjective stands immediately before the noun. It must be adapted to the case (case) and number (number) of the noun. Predicative means that the adjective does not belong to a noun but to a verb. The adjective always retains its basic form. Nominalized means that the adjective is used as a noun. Here one writes it large and treats it as a noun.
In addition, this type of word can be increased. In German, there are three forms of the adjective: the positive, the comparative, the superlative. In other languages, there are five forms of comparison.
The pronouns are not, like the articles, a companion of the noun, but their deputy, and can sometimes replace it in one sentence. They, like the nouns, are inflectable and must be partly declined. A distinction is made between personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, possessive pronouns, relative pronouns, and interrogative pronouns.
Personal pronouns: Can replace a noun that has already been set, talk about ourselves, or address another person. Furthermore they are declinable.
Example: I have a dog. He is very handsome.
Reflexive pronouns: Do the pronouns me / me, you / yourself, us, you, yourself. They are used with reciprocal and reflexive verbs and always refer to the subject.
Example: I love myself; I wash my feet.
Demonstrative pronouns: Could point to something and thus emphasize it. In most cases, the things that are named can actually be shown with the finger.
Examples: Would you like to buy this or that puppy? This!
Possessivepronomen: Show the possession, are also declined and match the respective ending to the corresponding noun.
Examples: This is my friend; Where are your shoes?
Relative pronouns: Conduct relative sets. A relative set gives additional information without starting a new set. Relative sets are always in commas.
Examples: I like the book I’m reading; The woman who came from Hamburg.
Interrogative pronouns: Replace in a question sentence the noun, after which in this is asked. Thus, with who, what, whom, whom, whose. Furthermore, which and which one for it, which replace the noun or accompany and declined are counted.
Examples: What (dog) belongs to you? Who is responsible?
Indefinite pronouns: indefinite pronouns can occur in the form of a pronoun or an article. Then they are called indefinite articles. They are used to specify an indeterminate number. They are used when something is generalized and not specifically named.
Examples: Everyone needs love; Some questions are pointless.
The numerical, also called the numerical word, means a counting term. There are indeterminate as well as certain numbers. The numeral is usually the companion of the noun, the numerator thus refers directly to this. One differentiates cardinal, ordinal, fractional and multiplication words.
Certain numeralities call a very concrete number (one, two, three, the first one the second), whereas indeterminate numbers can not be indicated by numerals, but still mean a lot (all, both, some, enough, none).
Cardinal numbers: one, two, three, ten, …
Ordinal numbers: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th; first second Third, …
Fractions: half, one and a half, a quarter, four quarters, …
Multiplication words: simple, double, double, triple, …
The adjective describes a thing more closely and thus indicates the properties of it, while the adverb denotes the details of an activity, process, or condition. The adverb can refer to the verb, adjective, nouns and even to an adverb.
The fighter is quite brave
In the above example, the word is rather boldly related to the adjective and thus describes it a little closer. This is precisely the task of the adverbs to describe another kind of word in more detail and to clarify the details. Therefore, the word type is also referred to as the circumstantial word. There are four different forms of adverbs: local adverb, temporal adverb, modal adverb, causal adverb.
Prepositions belong to the non-inflectable types of words, and are therefore invariable. The preposition shows the relationship between persons, things, or processes. Therefore, they are also referred to as ratio words. Prepositions can display different types of relationship. They are local, temporal, causal (ground) or modal (mode).
The woman is sitting in the car.
In the example above, the word is in a preposition. It describes the relationship between the woman and the car. The woman sits not on or under the car, but in the car. The example shows the place where the woman is, this is a local preposition.
local: on, off, out, outside, outside, at, in, …
temporal: within, against, after, since, around, …
causal: instead, on, exclusively, except, according, without, …
modal: face, occasion, thanks, for, consequence, …
The conjunctions also belong to the non-inflectable types of words. Conjunctions have the task of combining sentences and sentences. This is why they are also referred to as binding words. Since conjunctions differ depending on the sentence connection, there are two possible forms: the associative and the subordinate conjunction.
Associating conjunctions have the task of connecting equivalent sentences (principal and principal, subordinate and subsidiary). Subordinate conjunctions connect the main clause to a subordinate clause, so a subordinate clause is connected to a superior clause (see the sentence structure).
NK: He’s old, but he’s still very attractive.
UK: I was 5, when I could count on.
Conjunctions: and, as well as, both – and also, and moreover, likewise; likewise, further; finally, at first, last; on one hand; on the other hand; . perthrough; during; by, by means
Interjections belong to the types of words which are not inflectable. They are therefore not conjugated or declined. The interjection is a kind of interruption or sound and is not really inserted into the structure of a sentence. It is also used as a sensibility word, expression word and exclamation word
Yuck! The soup tastes terrible. Pooh!
In the above example, there are two interjections: namely, the words Pfui and Igitt. Both are, in fact, only exclamations, or even sounds, which express a feeling. The meaning of an interjection often depends on the intonation, ie the emphasis. The word hey can, for example, have very different meanings, if differently emphasized.
More examples: ah, aha, oh, au, bhh, yuck, hurray, huhla, nanu, oha, o lala, pfui, tja, ups, wow, dong klong ratchet hui peng boing rums, blub-blub, schnipp, hatschi, well, well, mhm, …
Overview: The most important to the types of words at a glance
Words are a way to categorize the individual words of a language. The number of spoken words can vary in other languages. In German there are 10 types of words.
These can be distinguished in a manner which can be flipped and not inflected. If a word type is inflectable, it can be conjugated or declined. If it is not, the word remains basically the same.
Verbs, articles, nouns, pronouns, numerals, and adjectives are inflectional in German, but adverbs, interjections, conjunctions, prepositions are not.