Sir Isaac Newton

Newton was born on December 25,1642. He was an English mathematician and physicist, considered one of the greatest scientist in history, who made important contributions to many fields of science. His discoveries and theories laid the foundation for much of the progress in science since his time. Newton was one of the inventors of the branch of mathematics called Calculus. He also solved the mysteries of light and optics. Formulated the three laws of motions, and derived from them the law of universal gravitation. Newtons birth place was at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Linclonshire.

Where he lived with his widowed mother, Until around his third birthday. At this time his mother remarried, leaving him in the care of his Grandmother and sent to grammar school in Grantham. Later, in the Summer of 1661, he was sent to Trinity Collage, at the University of Cambridge. Newton received his bachelors degree in 1665. After an intermission of nearly two years to avoid the plague, Newton returned to Trinity, Which elected him to a fellowship in 1667. He received his master degree in 1668. Newton ignored much of the established curriculum f the University to pursue his own interests: mathematics and natural philosophy.

By joining them in what he called the Fluxional method, Newton developed in the autumn of 1666 a kind of mathematics that is now known as calculus. Was a new and powerful method that carried modern mathematics above the level of Greek geometry. Although Newton was its inventor, he did not introduce calculus into European Mathematics. Always Fearful of publication and Criticism. Newton kept his Discovery to himself. However, enough was known of his abilities o effect his appointment in 1669as a Luciasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambbridge.

Optics was another area of Newtons early interests. In trying at explain now colors occur, he arrived at the idea that sunlight is a heterogeneous blend of different rays each of, which represents a different color-and that reflections and refraction cause colors to appear by separating the blend into its components. Newton demonstrated his theory of colors by passing the beam of sunlight through a type of prism, which split the beam into separate colors. In 1672 Newton sent a brief exposition of his theory of colors to the Royal Society in London.

In 1704 however, Newton published appliqus, which explained his theories in details. During the following two and a half years, Newton established the modern science of dynamics by formulating his three laws of motion. Newton applied there laws to Kemplers law of orbital motion-formulated by the German astronomer Johannes Kempler-and derived the law of Universal Gravitation. Newton is probably best known for discovering Universal Gravitation, which explains that ll bodies in space and on earth are affected by the force of Gravity, and another thing he invented was the Reflecting Telescope.

He published this theory in his book Philosophiae Natural is Principia Mathematica in 1687. This book marked a turning point in the history of science; it also ensured that its author could never regain his privacy. In the same year, 1687, Newton helped lead Cambridges resistance to the efforts of King James II to make the University a Catholic institution, After the English Revolution in 1688, which drove James from England, the University elected Newton one f its representatives in a special convening of the countys Parliament.

In the summer of 1693 Newton showed symptoms of a severe emotional disorder. Although he regained his health, his creative period had come to an end. Newtons connections with the leaders of the new regime in England led to his appointment as warden. And later master of Royal Mint in London, where he lived after 1696. In 1703 the Royal Society elected him President, an office he held for the rest of his life. As President, he ordered the immediate Publication of the Astronomical Observations of the First Astronomer Royal of England, John Flamsteed.

Newton needed these observations to perfect his Lunar theory. Newton also compiled the book of evidence that the society published. The effects of the quarrel lingered nearly until his death in 1727. In addition to science, Newton also showed an interest in Alchemy, Mysticism, and Theology. Many pages of his notes and writing-particularly from the later years of his career are devoted to these topics. However, historians have found little connection between these interests and Newtons scientific works.

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