Romanticism is an epoch of art history, whose manifestations have been reflected in literature, music and art as well as in philosophy. The epoch of Romanticism can be found from the end of the 18th century to the late 19th century, with the literary romanticism being roughly dated from 1795 to 1848, and between classicism, storm and urge, sensitivity, enlightenment and Biedermeier, Vormärz and realism. The epoch is distinguished in early-romanticism (until 1804), high-power (until 1815) and late-romanticism (until 1848). The central motifs of Romanticism are the creepy, subconscious, fantastic, passionate, individual, emotional, and adventurous, which were to break and broaden the boundaries of the mind, directed against the mere thought of usefulness and industrialization. The main representatives are E.T.A. Hoffmann, Joseph von Eichendorff, Ludwig Tieck, Bettina of Arnim, the brothers Grimm, Novalis and Clemens Brentano.
The term originally meant that something was wonderful, adventurous, invented, and fantastic, and goes back to the old French words romance, romance and romantic, all of which refer to works and writings written in the language of the people. If a text is romantic, then it is sensual, adventurous, creepy, fantastic and wonderful. It gives itself up to nature, overcomes the limits of the mind and puts the subconscious as well as the dream into the absolute foreground.
The noun Romance used Novalis as the first, a German writer and also a philosopher of the early romance. Novalis, in fact, used the concept of the doctrine of the novel, and did not use the word primarily to describe the entire epoch as it is nowadays used.
Like the epoch, the novel is derived from the same concept: the lingua romana. This does not mean the Latin language, which was called lingua latina, but refers to the Romance languages, such as French or Spanish. What is essential here is that the Romantics were concerned primarily with the history and language of their own people and turned away from the antiquity, which is why myths, legends and myths were popular texts, but, of course, the novel as a literary genre.
The generic name was, however, only shaped in retrospect. Heinrich Heine, who is himself the last poet of Romanticism, summed up the epochs of Weimar classicism and romanticism as a so-called art period, and pointed out that Goethe and his followers were beginning a new conception of art, which was only in the middle of the 19th century.Epochen der Literatur als Zeitstrahl
Characteristics of romance
The characteristics of the literaturepoche can not be clearly stated in any case. Thus there are clear ideas, which were predominantly dominated by the initial current (early romanticism) and subsequently expanded by individual representatives. Consequently, the following overview of the features shows some general aspects which, however, can not always be discerned in the individual temporal sections but illustrate the general understanding of the epoch.
Overview: Characteristics of the Romanticism at a glance
The society of the eighteenth century was generally regarded as scientific as well as up-and-coming, which is evident in the beginning of industrialization. Society has become increasingly technical, progressive and scientific. More and more puzzles and myths could be scientifically explained and scientifically justified.
This development was contrary to the romantics. They opposed the pursuit of ever-increasing profit, progress, and the use of usefulness that tried to exploit everything. The focus was therefore on the desire for the mysterious and a mythical world, which contained the dreamy and unexplainable. As a result, all the subjects that were inexplicable and wonderful were particularly attractive, which is why, in Romanticism, wild and untamed nature was also essential.
An essential feature of the epoch is therefore the turning away from the capitalist and profit-oriented working world, which valued people above all because of its usefulness. The Romantics turned against the established, the great-bourgeoisie and the rational, and above all the bourgeoisie, who were regarded as petty and narrow-minded, were mocked. This characteristic resembles the storm and the urge.
The Romantics, therefore, praised the mythical and the fairy-tale, and especially praised the Middle Ages as an ideal age of history, since during this time all men were united in the mythical Christian faith and, moreover, the Germanic cultural heritage
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