As a caesura in the verse (metric), a legally defined incision, that is, a short (speaking) pause, is designated within a verse. The caesura can be perceived as a syntactic, phonetic, and metrical incision. A distinction is made between caesura having a fixed position (e.g., Alexandrian) and movable caesura (e.g., blank verse). Continue reading “Caesura”


A word field is a group of words which have a similar meaning and belong to the same word type. The word field is to be distinguished from the word family. This includes words grouped around a same or similar word stem and having a common word root; however, the words of a word family do not have to have a similar meaning, but this applies to words from word fields. Continue reading “Wortfeld”

Word family

The word family refers to words which are the same or similar tribe morphemes, that is, grouped around the same stem, and are historically based on the same word root (origin). However, words can belong to the same word family, ie have a similar origin, and yet have a completely different meaning. The meaning relation must therefore not be retained within a word family. Continue reading “Word family”


Word types, including word classes or spells, are one way of categorizing the individual words of a language. This means that they are grouped together because of their commonality. In German, there are ten types of words. One differentiates between variable (inflectable) and immutable (non-inflectable) types of words. In German, verbs, articles, nouns, pronouns, numerals, and adjectives are inflected; Adverbs, interjections, conjunctions, prepositions. Continue reading “Speech”


Repetition, also repetitio, is a stylistic device found in all literary genres. Repetition is the repeated naming of the same word or a sequence of words in the same verse or in a stanza as well as in a short text section. There are different ways in which the respective element can be repeated. However, all have an amplifying effect on the receiver (reader, listener). Continue reading “Repeat”

W questions

W questions are questions beginning with the letter W and are the basis of the essential work in many journalistic text forms and are the starting point of a research. By answering the usual W questions, an event can be completely reconstructed. Continue reading “W questions”

Vox nihili

As Vox nihili, also ghost word or ghostword, is meant a word which has arisen only by accidental printing, writing or pronunciation errors of the copyist or editor. Accordingly, a Vox nihili does not arise deliberately, but because of an error and thus has no real meaning. What is important is that a ghostword can be considered as such only if it has appeared in a publication which leads to the actual dissemination of the word, such as dictionaries or scientific papers, which are referenced and cited. Continue reading “Vox nihili”


A period of German history is called Vormarz. The Vormarz is dated to the years before the March Revolution (1848), with different divisions being customary. He who comprehends the pre-war period in the broader sense locates it between 1815 and 1848, who takes it narrowly, means a period from 1830, also 1840, to 1848. The term is equally meant the literature of this time. Parallel to the radical-democratic Vormärz existed the rather conservative or even home-baked Biedermeier. The motives of the Vormarz were the demand for the equal treatment of all men, a democratic constitution and the freedom of the press, which was then subjected to censorship. Continue reading “Vormärz”

Operation Description

The description of the operation is intended to describe to the future reader an operation or process as detailed as possible, so that the latter can independently follow the described process and imitate it. The course description is introduced in the Department of German at the primary school in order to describe simple procedures. Continue reading “Operation Description”


A vocal, also self-defined, is defined as a sound, in whose articulation, ie, the air, can escape unhindered from the mouth, which is why the speech apparatus does not narrow or close, as is the case with the so-called consonants. The German vowel letters include a, e, i, o, u and the umlauts. Diphthongs (au, ei, ui) belong to the vowels. Continue reading “Vokal”