Ode

The ode is a poem with a strophic outline, characterized by a solemn and sublime style. In principle, however, the ode does not have any loop binding, which means that there is no fixed rhyme scheme. In antiquity almost every lyrical work, which was presented to music, was considered an ode. It was not until the eighteenth century that the ode was distinguished from the song, as it was characterized by its artistic design and superior style.

term
The term is derived from ancient Greek (ᾠδή ~ ōdḗ) and can be translated with song, poem or singing. This shows that the poem form originally meant lyricism, which was used to accompany music. As a result, choral members or monodies can also be called odes. Monodies are poems in which the performer accompanies himself with a plucked instrument.

The ode follows – according to ancient understanding – a very strict structure. Although there is no given sequence of the final rhymes in the poem, there are, in part, very strict guidelines with regard to the emphasis on the syllables of the work and the stanza form. This results in the most widespread odenomounts: namely, the Alkaeic, sapphic, and also the asclepiadic ode (→ verse).

Characteristics of Ode
Overview: Features of the Ode at a glance
Poem: The Ode is a poem form. This means that it is written in verses, which are divided into stanzas. Often these are Alkaean, Sapphian, and Asclepiadean stanzas. There are also rare archilochic, hipponite, and stanzas in the Ionikus.
Style: The language is sublime, graceful and artful. As a result, the language style is sometimes even pathetic, that is, an emotional, theatrical, and partly exaggerated form of articulation.
Character: The ancient odes were strongly oriented to the prescribed stanza form, whereby they were also usually rhymeless. Important representatives are Pindar (Greek) and Horaz (Latin). In Germany and Europe, the clear guidelines were mostly imitated, with the sealing form having a new climax, especially in the 18th century, by Klopstock.
No final rhymes: The ode has no rhymes at the end of a line. This means that there is no fixed rhyme scheme that holds the individual verses of the verses together.
Similar genres: The poem is probably the most similar to the song and the anthem. Both genres, however, are free of rigid rules and are also written in free rhythms.

Characteristics of Ode
Overview: Features of the Ode at a glance
Poem: The Ode is a poem form. This means that it is written in verses, which are divided into stanzas. Often these are Alkaean, Sapphian, and Asclepiadean stanzas. There are also rare archilochic, hipponite, and stanzas in the Ionikus.
Style: The language is sublime, graceful and artful. As a result, the language style is sometimes even pathetic, that is, an emotional, theatrical, and partly exaggerated form of articulation.
Character: The ancient odes were strongly oriented to the prescribed stanza form, whereby they were also usually rhymeless. Important representatives are Pindar (Greek) and Horaz (Latin). In Germany and Europe, the clear guidelines were mostly imitated, with the sealing form having a new climax, especially in the 18th century, by Klopstock.
No final rhymes: The ode has no rhymes at the end of a line. This means that there is no fixed rhyme scheme that holds the individual verses of the verses together.
Similar genres: The poem is probably the most similar to the song and the anthem. Both genres, however, are free of rigid rules and are also written in free rhythms.
Odenstrophen
As described, there are different ode dimensions, ie fundamental stanza patterns followed by the poem. The following is an overview of the most common Odenstrophen with an imitative example from the German-speaking literature.

These examples are imitative, because Greek and Latin are based on a quantitative metric. This means that the syllables are subdivided according to length and curtailment. In contrast, there is an accentuating metric in German: the distinction between unstressed and unstressed syllables.

Alkaeic Odenstrophs
The Alkaeic Odenstrophe consists of two Alkaeic Elfsilbers, which are metrically identical. After two jambic insides and a depression, there is a caesura (/), a dactylus as well as a complete and an incomplete Trochaeus. Stressed and unaccented syllables are not alternating (alternating).

The third verse of the verse is a silver-silver, which is four-tenth in the iambic and has a supernumerary lowering at the end. The last verse is a ten-syllable composed of two dactyls and two trochhies. This alkalic ostrophy consists, therefore, of four verses, all but the last, being active.

11
11
9
10
È – È – È / – È È – È –
È – È – È / – È È – È –
È – È – È – È – È
– È È – È È – È – È

The above example shows the different elevations and depressions of the ostring, and the number before the lines indicates the number of syllables. Frequently this stanza by Friedrich Hölderlin was used, as for example in his work Die Götter, which is clearly constructed according to this scheme.

11
11
9
10
You still ether! / Always keep you beautiful
The soul to me in pain, and it is knotted
To the bravery before your rays,
Heli os! Often the indignant breast to me.
This transfer into German is based on the ancient Odenstrophe. Increases and reductions were transferred into stressed and unstressed syllables. The only feature which is not used is lupenrein, the second caesura (speech, speech) in the second verse, which was not set.

Sapphic Odenstrophe
The Sapphian odestrophy consists of four lines. The first three verses are metrically identical. They begin non-tactually with a two-legged Trochäus. This is followed by a dactylus, which is followed by another trochus. The fourth verse consists of a Dactylus and a Trochaeus.

11
11
11
5
– È – È – È È – È – È
– È – È – È È – È – È
– È – È – È È – È – È
– È È – È

It is seen that the first three lines are identical and only the fourth line is different. These three verses are called sapphic els, and thus consist of eleven syllables. This form of the Ode was seldom modeled in the German lyric. Nevertheless, there are metric accurate translations:

11
11
11
5
Horsemen like the one, the other
hold infantry or an army of ships
for the earth most delicious thing, -but I
what you love.
This example is a stanza of the Ode to Anaktoria of Sappho, the author of the Odestrophe. The metrically accurate transmission into German was realized by the philologist Max Treu and precisely reflects the schema. Here, too, of course, the ups and downs were transferred to unaccented and stressed syllables to reproduce the poem in German.

Asclepiadic ostesthesia
The asclepiadic odestrophe is named after the Greek poet Asklepiades. Each of the four verses begins non-tactically, that is, unstressed, and with a Trochaeus, a Dactylus, and a last elevation.

In the first two verses there follows a caesura and a Dactylus, a Trochaeus, and a last emphasized syllable. The third line of verse also begins with Trochaeus and Dactylus, whereupon a trochaean foot is again employed. The fourth line is identical to the third, but has a pronounced syllable.

12
12
7
8th
– È – È È – / – È È – È –
– È – È È – / – È È – È –
– È – È È – È
– È – È È – È –

The basic scheme should be evident. Also for this form of the Odenstrophe there is an exact transfer into German: The Zurich lake by Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. Klopstock’s Oden and Elegies (1771) were also a highlight of the German-language Odendichtung (→ Elegie).

12
12
7
8th
Beautiful is, Mother Nature, / your invention
Scattered in the hallways, a fair face,
That’s the big idea
Think of your creation once more.

In this example Klopstock not only took over the heights and sinkings of the Asclepius Odenstrophe, but also transferred the two caesura into German. According to the words Nature and scattered, we make a clear impression. This fact is also clarified by the comma. It is the first stanza of the work.

Note: There are odes based on Archilochian and Hipponite stanzas or a design in the Ionikus, a footer. These are very rare, which is why they are not listed here.

Odendichter and examples
Known and important odes
Pindar: Epinikia (chorusian prizewinners on the winner of Greek agons)
Horace: Carmina I-IV (main work of the poet – four poems with Oden)
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock: The Lake of Zurich, An Fanny, An Johann Heinrich Voss
Friedrich Schiller: To Joy (set in Beethoven’s 9th Symphony)
Friedrich Hölderlin: To the Parzen, song of the German, CV
Adam Mickiewicz: Oda do Młodości (Ode to youth)
John Keats: Ode to a Nightingale (Ode to the Nightingale)
Percy B. Shelley: Ode to the Westwind (Ode to the Westwind)
Victor Hugo: Ode sur la mort du duc de Berry (Ode on the death of Duc de Berry)
The most important thing to the Ode in the overview
The Ode is a poem form and related to the hymn and the song. It was not until the eighteenth century that there was a distinction between the song and the ode, a more sophisticated language and a more artistic style. This is especially true of the ancient models.
These ancient models are characterized above all by their rhymingness and a strict metrical structure. In the German lyric, however, there are odes which show rhymes or deviate from the given metrum.
If the ode does not fall back on any of the known ode dimensions, it is difficult to recognize them as such. Then further features can be helpful: The Ode is usually a praise to something and also has very frequently exciting, the mind-inspiring contents.
The ancient odes are characterized by the fact that they were sung and often accompanied by music, but later reproductions do not always meet this claim. In this case, we can usually recognize ode as a result of the ostesthesia used.

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