As neologism is called a new language. This can be understood as a rhetorical stylistic device. Neologism is a new-born linguistic expression for new concepts or things. Neologisms are formed by the combination of already existing elements or by means of a meaning transfer as well as the borrowing or translation from a foreign language. Neologisms exist in all living languages.
The term can be derived from the Greek (νέος ~ neos, new, λόγος ~ logos, word) and therefore translate with new word or new word. The ending, however, has a Latin origin. The translation thus shows us what basically the figure has in itself: it is about a new word [created in a living language]. Let us look at an example.
After the brunch it finally goes to the holiday.
The above example combines two neologisms: brunch and holiday. The noun brunch, which means a meal between breakfast and lunch, is a composition of breakfast (breakfast) and lunch (lunch). The extensive Oxford English Dictionary leads the hunter Guy Beringer as the word creator, who allegedly used it for the first time in 1895.
Consequently, the word brunch in the late 19th century was a new term that distinguished the meal between breakfast and lunch and consists of dishes of both dishes. As a result, Guy Beringer created an intermediate meal, which is also very popular nowadays, and thus a neologism.
The concept of “Kurlaub” is a conceptual novelty based on composition and eradication. Composition means that the concepts are formed from several words, in this case from holidays and health. Repayment means that a part of a word is lost, whereby the holiday leave the ur of holidays. Such repayments are also referred to stylistically as elision or apocops.
Kurlaub is a word that could only arise when people went to the spa and this holiday was like a holiday. For this, of course, a new word had to be given, the neologism spa holiday was born and changed in the linguistic usage to the holiday, since the duplication of ur sounds bumpy and thus for language economic reasons. This was the way the maid came from the girl.
Note: The examples above are no longer novel, but were felt as new at the time of their emergence. Consequently, a neologism is always to be considered in the linguistic context. A new word, which creates it in the language use and then in the dictionary, loses this character with the time. Therefore it is sometimes difficult to recognize neologism. What is important is that the word was considered new for a certain time.
When is neologism new?
Neologisms can often be recognized as such only at the time when they are still understood as novel words. If it is possible to establish itself in the language use and to be included in dictionaries, it is hardly recognizable as a neologism.
For example, the laptop, a composition from the English lap (lap) and top (surface), is listed in every dictionary and was taken into account already in 1991 in the Duden. Nowadays the word is established and is understood by most people. Nevertheless, when he first emerged, the concept was to be regarded as neologism, that is, as a novelty which did not exist before.
Consequently, a neologism can only be valid and functionalized in the context of its origin as such. Although we can designate a concept as such retroactively, it does not make sense in any case. Let us think of analyzing texts when we understand neologisms as stylistic means.
Note: If, for example, we found the word brunch in a poem from 1895, we could call it a neologism and derive an effect as well as peculiarity from it. In a work from the year 2014, however, this would be unnecessary and not as effective, since the poet uses a common word and does not use the novel in a targeted way. Then it is not a stylistic device either.
Occasionalism and neologism
The speakers of a language create new words every day. As a rule, this is done by means of composites, that is to say compositions, in order to close a linguistic gap. However, these new formations are usually regarded as occasionalisms and not as neologisms.
Occasionalisms, also occasional words, are concepts which are created once in speech, in order to describe something in the respective situation. The concept which arises here does not belong to the vocabulary of language, and is used only once. Let’s look at an example.
Oh, the Thomas is still a nureaubiertrinker.
In the above example, we are dealing with a linguistic utterance, which the person Thomas names with a new term. The term was probably spontaneous and thus created out of the situation. As a result, nourishers are clearly a newcomer.
The difference to neologism is, therefore, that occasionalism is used only in a one-time situation by the speaker in order to fill a gap in vocabulary. It becomes clear that the speaker wants to express the fact that Thomas is going home after only one beer. Nonetheless, the notion of nuisance drinkers will not be established as a new word in language usage.
Notes: This means that neologisms always find their way into the language use and are used by several people. A spontaneous creation of the word, which is only used once, is not neologism but an occasionalism. This border is usually not drawn in German lessons. Yet it is wrong to call a novel concept of fantasy as neologism.
Types of neologisms
The examples of holiday and brunch were given. Both are neologisms, but they were formed differently. Brunch is a keyword from lunch and breakfast, spa vacation a composition and eradication. However, there are other types of neologisms.
New Words: Words that are completely new and have not existed before. The word brunch can be considered as such. Recently, the verb simsen (an SMS write) can be listed.
New Explanations: A term that already exists is given an additional meaning. If we think of the mouse, this is a rodent and, since the computer age, an input device.
New combination: Existing words are connected in a new way and thus become neologism. A café, which allows its visitors access to the Internet for a fee, is, for example, an Internet café. Further examples are literature paper or laptop bag.
Formation of neologisms
Neologisms can be formed quite differently. In the article we have already shown you some possibilities of word formation. However, there are other variants to create such a neologism. Let’s look at a clarifying overview.
Overview: Origin of Neologisms
Composition: New terms are composed of existing words (eg: Computer mouse, Genmais, literary paper, brunch).
Eradication and association: words are formed from the first part of a word and the second one of another. This involves the eradication, ie the omission of individual parts of the word. (Eg bionics, Bollywood, Modem, Teuro)
Abbreviations: Can be formed in the language, which often happens for linguistic-economic reasons. Such abbreviations, if established in the language, can be regarded as independent words and neologisms (eg SMS, apprentice, Hiwi → acronym).
Derivation: New word forms are formed by affixes. An affix is a bound morpheme, which has only one grammatical function. As an example, the affix cyber, which created different neologisms through numerous concatenations: cyberpunk, cybercriminality, cyber war.
Sprachwitz: Actually a form of the corruption of a word. Can, however, enter into the vocabulary of language, as a famous example, which was once used as a joke for the combination of nothing but a student, and still used by students.
Effect and function of neologisms
It is difficult to ascribe a fixed function or effect to a rhetorical stylistic device. Then we quickly run the risk of always reducing it to exactly that effect and no longer checking whether it really does. Nevertheless, we would like to make some suggestions.
Overview: Effect, Function and Features of Neologism ‘
As neologism, a neo-doctrine is called, which subsequently becomes established in the vocabulary of language. Unique word creations are termed as occasionalism and are to be regarded as spontaneous word formation.
It is important that a neologism does not have to be new to us any more and is still one. What is decisive is that the word was created to designate a thing and not yet exist in the vocabulary of a language, and then established itself.
Neologism can be formed differently. A common form in German is the composition of familiar words. However, disagreement, derivation, or abbreviations can also be the cause of neologism.
Neologisms often arise because concepts are replaced by another word. This is often the case, in order to give a concept a positive evaluation. In this case, neologism is related to euphemism. (Example: Companion instead of Conductor.)
However, the principle can also be reversed and neologism create a negative evaluation which is not inherent in the original word. As a result, neologisms are not only used to name new things, but can also reinterpret existing words to give them a different meaning.
For this reason, neologisms are often found in propagandistic writings, that is, written articles, which are intended to impose on the recipient a certain way of thinking and therefore to manipulate it. (Example: international financial judiciary.)
The phenomenon of neologism is found in all living languages. So in all linguistic communities that are developing and being spoken. This is due to the fact that language always has to meet new requirements and new things are always named.
The stylistic counterpart is formed by archaism. Archaism refers to words that die out and are perceived by most as old-fashioned. If such ancient concepts are intentionally placed in the text, archaisms can also be regarded as stylistic means.
Note: neologisms are sometimes critically viewed in public. On the other hand, they are often cited in order to prove the decay of language (anglicisms, etc.). On the other hand, they are the best example of the fact that the language is capable of changing and fulfilling the requirements which it must meet.
Note for pupils: In German language, writing a poem analysis, and examining it, it is perfectly correct to name all the neologisms, for example in connection with onomatopoeia (loudspeaking). On the one hand, it simplifies the work; on the other hand, it is difficult to verify whether the word was new to the author at the time of writing or was established in the language community. It is also not important to distinguish between occasionalism and neologism, since the effect in the text is usually the same.