The subordination in the sentence classification is called hypotaxes. This means that the term hypotaxes describes the subordinate order of ancillary sentences under main records. Through the use of the stylistic means very complex thoughts can be illustrated and topics can be presented in detail. The counterpart to the hypotaxis is the Parataxe.
In general, we recognize the hypotaxes that sentences appear very long. In this context, the term “tapeworm” often refers to a sentence that simply does not want to end. A typical hypothetical style is Heinrich von Kleist or Thomas Mann (→ Literaturepochen).
Note: The word can be derived from Greek. “Hypo” (ὑπό) stands for “under” and “táxis” (τάξις) for “order”. The translation also shows quite nicely what it is about the style figure: it is about a subordination. In this case, ancillary orders are placed under main records.
Subordinate clauses of subordinate clauses under headings
In the specialist literature, the term “hypotaxis” is usually used to indicate that this is a subordinate order of secondary subjects. But what does it mean?
In principle, the main clauses and the secondary clauses differ by the position of the conjugated verb (~ diffracted word). In one main sentence, the conjugated verb is in the first position (yes / no questions and imperative), or in the second position (statements of sentences and W questions).
I go to the bar.
The example is an excerpt and also a main sentence. This can be seen in the fact that the verb (~ go) is second, as already described. Let’s look at the subordinate clause.
In principle, the subordinate clause is similar to the main clause. The difference, however, is that the conjugated verb slips to the last position and can not appear at another position.
I go to the bar,
because I want to meet Jonas.
The subordinate clause (NS) is similar in structure. However, the irregular verb (may be) is at the last position within the entire construct.
Note: By-sentences are often linked to the main record by conjunctions (that, after, if, because, …) and separated by a comma. It is also important that the subordinate set is dependent on the main set. This means that he can not stand without him.
Detect the hypotaxes
If you were able to understand by the examples what the difference between the subsidiary and the main rate is, it should be easy for you to recognize the hypotaxes.
Let us look at a simple example to illustrate the distinction more clearly. Let us take a single sentence from Kleist’s Michael Kohlhaas:
It happened that the elector of Saxony, on the invitation of the landgrave, Count Aloysius of Kallheim, who at that time had considerable possessions on the frontier of Saxony, was in the company of the chamberlain, Mr. Kunz, and his wife, Dame Heloise, daughter of Landdrost and sister of the President, other splendid gentlemen and ladies, hunting-youngsters, and courtiers, who were about to mention not, had traveled to Dahme to a great deer hunt, which had been made to amuse him,
Basically, the essential statement of the sentence is that the Elector is traveling on an invitation to Dahme. All other elements of the set are only inserts that give us additional information about the main set. This is referred to as a hypothetical sentence structure or a hypotaxy, since many minor sentences are subordinate.
It is also important in this context that the hypotaxes often mean an artistic interlacing of the secondary sentences. It is not just a matter of the wide use of such ancillary theorems, but the connection of several subsidiary sentences in a sentence structure.
Examples of hypotaxes
In the following we would like to show more examples of the hypotaxes. It should now be clear what the stylistic figure is, which is why we forgo further explanations.
At the court of the Princess of St. C … at Naples, in 1788, a young Romanian, named Franzeska N …, daughter of a poor invalide naval officer, was a beautiful and witty girl, the princess of St. C … because of a service which her father had done, from her early youth, had taken him to her house and brought up her home.
This excerpt, however, comes from the pen of Kleist, and is taken from the work of the Odd History, which, in my time, took place in Italy. In this case as well, the actual main set is expanded by numerous inserts that are subordinate to it.
Once again, […] a year has passed […]: this eternal cycle is a little tired to me, to which I am indebted to several factors, the author of which I am referring in this context, to avoid any inconvenience, the consequences of which I accept would like to be peaceable, would be forced, would not be foreseeable, expose, not call.
This extract is taken from Wolfgang Hildesheimer’s communications to Max. Although the entry is still quite “clear”, the individual sentences are immediately intertwined and the hypothetical sentence building becomes quite clear.
I, who had just descended with my bunch in a hotel, and was present in the place where this idea occurred, could not hear from all the people at the entrance of a church where I was standing, what this strange woman told the gentlemen; so that as the men whispered to each other, laughing, they did not share their science with everyone, and, for the sake of the drama which was preparing themselves, I felt much less anxious to take a seat, to a bank which had been cut in behind me in the church entrance.
However, Heinrich von Kleist, with an extract from Michael Kohlhaas, makes the final example of the selected examples. Kleist’s tales, by the way, are bursting with hypotaxes, which sometimes extend over many lines. It is therefore often difficult for students to follow the respective words and to establish a sense of meaning.
Effect and function of hypotaxes
Of course, it is difficult to attribute a unique effect to a stylistic device. Nevertheless, every stylistic figure has an effect on the reader and this can be described in any case.
The hypotaxis is usually a very, very long sentence, which is why it is sometimes difficult to follow the exact meaning. The more the interlacing of the individual secondary sentences, the more difficult it is to see the connections in reading.
Hypotaxes are often found in the language of science (technical language). One might think that it is because scientists like to “talk”. Often, however, it is due to the fact that the hypotaxes can enrich a main set with further information.
In contradistinction to the Parataxe, a hypotaxis is often explanatory and informative because the accompanying addenda can underline the main statement.
If you find hypotaxes in a text, this is, of course, a feature. But first speak of a hypothetical sentence structure or style, if several such bandworm sentences can be made out in the text.