The Geminatio is a stylistic device of rhetoric and a figure of the word repetition. As Geminatio we call the repetition of words in the immediate neighborhood. This means that a word or a word group is reused immediately, usually by a comma. Thus, the Geminatio of the Anadiploses, Epanalepse and Epizeuxis resembles.

The term is derived from Latin (Latin geminatio) and can be translated with doubling. Consequently, the translation already shows what the basic principle of this stylistic means is: the doubling of words [which are directly following one another]. Let us look at an example.

O God, O God, why did you do this?
The above example bundles three style figures. Thus, on the one hand, we find the exclamation (exclamation) and, on the other hand, an apostrophe (address of absent persons) as well as a geminatio. This is found here in the doubling of the word group O God and amplifies what is said immensely.

Usually the geminatio occurs at the beginning of a linguistic utterance and thereby draws the recipient of the statement (reader, spectator) to a certain detail and thus increases the importance of the repeated concept. But of course it can also be used in the middle or at the end.

Theodor, the Theodore, stands with us in the football gate […]
The above example is taken from a known football ball and introduces the Geminatio at the beginning of the statement, whereby the focus is strongly directed to the name Theodor. Let us take a look at the literary genres, and there are examples of the style figures of the word repetitions (eg Olé, Olé, Olé).

All around me are familiar faces
Worn out places, worn out faces
Bright and early for their daily races
Going nowhere, going nowhere.
And their tears are filling up their glasses
No expression, no expression.
Hide my head I want to drown my sorrow
No tomorrow, no tomorrow.
These verses are from a verse of the song Mad World by Gary Jules. In the repetition of the passages going nowhere, no expression, and no tomorrow, we find three times the stylistic means of the Geminatio. It becomes clear that the style figure also plays an important role in the design (→ sweepstroke) in the music and, of course, mainly in the refrain.

Geminatio, anadiplosis and epanalysis

Basically, the Geminatio recalls the stylistic figures Anadiplose and Epanalepse. Although all three special forms of repitition, ie the word repetition, there are differences.

Anadiplosis: Here, too, a word is repeated immediately. However, the anadiploses describe a repetition of the last word group of a verse or sentence at the beginning of the following verse or sentence. It is important that two levels of meaning are separated and not just a simple doubling → anadiplosis
Example: You want to be a friend to me? Be a friend in good times and in bad times?
Epanalysis: Describes the repetition of a word or phrase within a sentence. However, the words do not follow each other directly or there is a distance on the linguistic level (pause in speech) → epanalysis
Example: Flache, Mortimer! Flee! or even It becomes still, quite still.
Epizeuxis: Sometimes the Geminatio is also confused with the Epizeuxis. However, the distinction is quite simple. The Epizeuxis means the triple or multiple repetition of a word and not a doubling → Epizeuxis
Example: Beautiful, beautiful, that you are there! or red rose, rose, rose red.

Effect and function of Geminatio
In principle, it is extremely difficult to assign a unique function to a stylistic device. Then there is the danger of always breaking down on this function and not paying attention to the overall context. Nevertheless, there is often a reason for the use.

Overview of effect, function and effect of Geminatio
Like all stylistic means of repetition, the Geminatio has a reinforcing effect and can bring a statement to the fore. For, by the repetition of a word or a group of words, this naturally conveys penetration.
This effect is also often used in advertising to anchor a message, slogan or brand in the minds of consumers (for example, “What do you want?”), Ma-o-am, Ma-o-am , Ma-o-am! ‘”)
However, this can also quickly lead to a phrase that is pathetic (exaggerated, overly emotional) and thus develops a certain comedy or “unbelief” and seems thus exaggerated.



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