As a finite verb, also finite verb form or personal form, a word form of the verb is designated (cf. word forms). The finite verb is conjugate, expressing certain grammatical features. The finite verb indicates person, number, genus, mode, and tense, and changes with the subject. Expressions without a finite verb are not sentences but headings, points of structure, or exclamations (cf. interjection). All German sentences contain at least one finite verb form, which is a part of the predicate (cf. The counterpart is the infinite verbs.
The term finit is derived from the Latin noun finis for boundary. Here the translation of the word gives us a clue as to what is at stake. The finite verb is limited.
It is limited in that it is subordinated to certain grammatical features, and is conjugated according to the number and person of the subject, and the genus, mode, and also tense change. In contrast, infinite verbs do not change. They remain the same, independent of other clauses, and are not limited.
Note: The term finite verb is rarely used. One speaks usually of the finite verb form or of the personnel form, rarely also of the finitum. However, we decided to use this term because our visitors mostly use it for questions and in the search.
Finite verb form in German
In German, a simple sentence with a subject and a predicate can be formed. This is the least and is therefore also referred to as sentence minimum or supplementary sentence.
Since every German theorem has a finitum and this is always a part of the predicate, it is also found in such a sentence minimum. A simple example consisting of subject and predicate is:
In the example above, the subject of the sentence is the first, and the predicate is the second. This is the finite verb rune. Consequently, this adjusts itself to the person and number mark of the subject of the sentence (see nominative), ie, to the ego. I am the first person singular. Therefore, the correct verb form runs.
In addition, the mode of the indicative and the tense is the present. However, if the subject were, for example, the first person plural, the verb would change. It is thus conjugated and thus indicates the change of person and number of the subject.
These examples illustrate how the verb has adapted to the subject. This was represented in the first example by the first person singular, thus I, and in the second by the first person plural We. In the first example, the verb form runs and runs in the second. The two sentences were indicative and were in the present tense. But this is not always the case.
In German, there are still other time forms than the present (present) and, in addition to the indicative, still further modes (subjunctive, imperative). A finite verb also changes.
In this example, the subject is We, that is, the first person plural, the verb stands in the preterite, that is, in the first past. According to this, the verb has adapted itself to the person and the number of the subject and also to the tense, that is, the time form. The mode is still indicative, which the finite verb also indicates.
Finite verb “run” at a glance
1. person singular 2. person singular 3. person singular 1. person plural 2. person plural 3. person plural
I you he she it we you they
Present run’re running running running running runs
Past tense ran liefst ran ran ran lieft
Perfekt bin gelaufen bist gelaufen sind gelaufen sind gelaufen sen gelaufen sind post a comment on this page
Plusquamperfekt  war was warstlaufen had been used
Future perfect continuous I will be running you will be running
Future perfect continuous I will have been walking you will have been walking
Partizip I  ongoing
Partizip II postally used
1. In a sentence there is usually only one finite verb form. At composited times such as Perfect, Plusquamperfekt and Futur, or multi-part predicates, care must be taken as to which verb is finite. This can be seen when checking which verb adapts to the subject and matches both person and number.
2. Partipzip I, Partizip II as well as verbs in the infinitive are not finite verbs. They do not adapt to the subject, and therefore do not provide information about the categories of the person and the number. Thus, little is known about them and they have to be viewed in context.
Conclusion: The above overview shows that finite verbs always change. They thus give all sorts of information. Thus the tense and preterite can be determined by the verb alone.