According to a general understanding, all the texts of the epic are designated as a narrative, and therefore all the works which are distinguished by a narrator (cf. narrative perspective) and thus can be distinguished from drama and lyric. For the most part, epic texts are written in prose, even if there are examples based on verses. As a result, the narrative is then a synonym for novels, novels, short stories, anecdotes, fairy tales, etc. In particular, however, the term is intended to mean a very specific genre whose characteristics can not be clearly identified. Essential is that it is a rather short story, which mostly has a clear introduction, a main part, and a conclusion, as well as a straightforward plot, which delimits itself from the nested novel, not the sharp criteria of novellas and short stories Fulfills. The course of action is usually narrated from a narrative perspective and chronologically. Fade-outs are more realized by memories or letters.

The noun narrative is derived from the verb narrative. The verb telling goes to the middle-high-German word tell, also hail, back. This originally meant enumerating or reporting. Consequently, this is basically a reproduction of an occurrence in written or oral form. Someone tells a content and the result is generally called history or narrative.

Regarding literature, however, the term means not only the fact that a person is telling something, but also that this story is mostly fictional, that is, not real. This also applies if the narrator in the text affirms that everything he says is true. In general, the term thus means an upper concept for literary texts of the epic, and also a genre which, however, has only a few distinct features.

Nevertheless, it can be said that the narrative is a medium-sized text, which is usually narrated chronologically, that is, functions without prefaces and reflections, and can usually be quite clearly divided into an introduction, a main part and a conclusion , which reaches its climax in the main part, then falls in the end (see stress curve). The basic structure of a narrative.

Characteristics of narrative
As already described, there are very few features which can be applied to any text of the genre. In addition, the term is sometimes used for all texts of the epic, which is why an exact classification is extremely difficult. Below you will find the attempt to list the essential characteristics that apply to most narrative and thus are often applicable.

Overview: The essential characteristics of the text location at a glance
In principle, a narrative is a story which is passed on verbally or in writing. However, texts with the term “written” are often used. Thus, the written text of such a narrative is invariably immutable and is not subject to variation. This feature has the novel in common with the novel and distinguishes it from fairy tales, legends and legends.
It is also a medium-length text. This means that the genre can be distinguished from the epic small forms such as the anecdote or the short story. However, it is not as extensive as a novel. This feature is, of course, very spongy, but it can be helpful in contrast to small forms.
In addition, narratives are usually told chronologically. There are therefore no time jumps in the form of flashbacks or pre-attacks. If, however, temporal jumps occur, this is mostly realized by means of letters or memories, which the protagonist reads or thinks – rather untypical is the jumping into different times. The same applies to the narrative strings. Most narratives are single-stranded and focus on a figure / figurine group.
Because the text does not jump between the times and is therefore linearly narrated, the narrative can usually be divided into three rough sections: Introduction, Majority, and Conclusion. The tension increases from the beginning and reaches its climax in the main part.
Since the text does not have an enormous extent, the action is usually also manageable, which also applies to the figurative ensemble. Most of the time, the story focuses on a protagonist and his exploration of the environment. The action is therefore not very spun and complex, but remains essential.
In addition, the genre is characterized by high intelligibility. Although there are many examples which have been written for scholars, in contrast to drama or poetry, the genre produces numerous works which are designed as consumer goods for members of all educational strata. For this only a glance at the book market has to be thrown, whereby it becomes clear that narratives are mostly associated with the fiction and thus the literature of entertainment, whereby they are distinguished by an understandable language and clear figurative constellations. They are therefore intended for many readers.
Furthermore, the text is fictional – or at least suspected – of the suspicion that this is so – and consequently is not real. This means that the narrative reproduces events conceived by an author, even if these can be entirely based on real events. These imagined events are conveyed by a narrator. Thus, for example, the genus can be distinguished from all sorts of sachenxten.
Such a narrator is the essential characteristic of epic texts. There are different experiments that push the narrator into the background, but basically there is either an auctorial, personal, neutral or ego narrator, who tells the story and shares with the addressee (reader, listener) (see narrative perspectives).
If such a narrative is not passed verbally, it is a question of prose texts. This means that the text is not characterized by metric or rhythmic prescriptions, does not follow a rhyme schema and thus appears in unbound speech.
Note: The above features are not generally valid. They were determined with the indicated secondary literature and by their own investigations. This is due to the fact that there are no established characteristics, but rather dare attempts to describe the genre.

Building a narrative (German lessons)
As described, the linear action of such a story is usually divided into a clear introduction, a clear body, and a very obvious conclusion. In principle, these parts can be designed quite freely. However, certain functions are given to these sections, especially in German teaching. These are explained below.

In the introduction, the time is given to the text. This is usually decided for the preterite or the present. Furthermore, the introduction provides clear indications as to which narrative perspective will basically determine the following text. Furthermore, important questions are clarified, which are necessary for the understanding of the narrative. There is information on the place and time of the following events, as well as the prehistory which may be essential to the story. The introduction thus resembles exposure to drama (see Peripetia).

The main part has basically two tasks. So he is to push the tension and tell the essence of the story. Thus, on the one hand, there are information on the activities of the protagonists and, on the other hand, the real core of the narrative. Here the real thing is told, that is, what it is all about. Shadows and prefaces are mostly realized through dreams, memories or letters. Furthermore, the tension of the story reaches its climax in the main part (see tension curve).

The conclusion can be either open or closed. If this is closed, the conflict that determines the narrative is resolved and ultimately clarified, whereby the tension falls. If it is open, the narrative again approaches the short story, whereby the tension is rather abruptly aborted.

Example narrations (selection)

Overview: Selected narratives, which are dealt with word growth
The Sandmann by E. T. A. Hoffmann
The Transformation of Franz Kafka
Lenz by Georg Büchner
Short overview: The most important overview
According to a general understanding, all the texts of the epic are designated as a narrative, and therefore all the works which are distinguished by a narrator, and which can be distinguished from the drama and the lyric. Specifically, however, this term is intended to mean a very specific genre, the characteristics of which are, however, not clearly defined.
It is true, however, that these are usually texts in prose, which are portrayed by a narrator, have a more manageable action and character constellation, and are of medium length. In addition, often only one narrative strand is followed, thus illuminating the shame of an individual or a small group of figures.
Note: The above features are not generally valid. They were determined with the indicated secondary literature and by their own investigations. This is due to the fact that there are no established characteristics, but rather dare attempts to describe the genre.

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