Poe is a very complicated author. His literary works are perplexed, disturbing, and even grotesque. His frequent illnesses may have provoked his engrossment in such things. In 1842 Dr. John W. Francis diagnosed Poe with sympathetic heart trouble as well as brain congestion. He also noted Poe’s inability to withstand stimulants such as drugs and alcohol (Phillips 1508). These factors may have motivated him to write The Tell-Tale-Heart, The Cask of Amontillado, and The Black Cat. All of these stories are written in or around 1843, shortly after Poe became afflicted.
His writing helped him to cope with his troubles and explore new territory in literature. Poe’s interest in the supernatural, retribution, and perverse cause them to be included in his burial motifs; therefore sustaining his interest. There is a common thread laced through each subject, but there is variation in degrees of the impact. The supernatural is the phenomena of the unexplained. With this comes an aura of mystery and arousal of fear. Death in itself is the supreme mystery. No living human being can be certain of what happens to the soul when one dies.
It is because of this uncertainty that death is feared by many. These types of perplexing questions cause a reader to come to a point of indifference within one of Poe’s burial motifs. One is uncertain of how the events can unfold, because a greater force dictates them. Reincarnation in The Black Cat is a supernatural force at work. There is some sort of orthodox witchcraft-taking place. The whole story revolves around the cat, Pluto, coming back to avenge its death. One can not be sure how Pluto’s rebirth takes place, but it is certain that something of a greater force has taken hold.
The cat’s appearance is altered when the narrator comes across it the second time. There is a white spot on the chest “by slow degrees, degrees nearly imperceptibleit had, at length, assumed a rigorous distinct outlineof the GALLOWS” (Poe 4). Foretelling the narrator’s fate a confinement tool appears on the cat’s chest. This also foreshadows the cat’s confinement in the tomb. It reappears like a disease to take vengeance on a man that has committed horrid crimes. “I was answered by a voice within the tomb! By a cry, at first muffled and broken, like the sobbing of a child, and quickly swelling into one long, loud and continuous scream, utterly anomalous and inhuman–a howl–a wailing shriek, half of honor and half of triumph (Poe 6). Pluto is like Poe’s reoccurring illness it keeps coming back just when he thinks it is gone. This can be related to the ever-looming question of why people become afflicted with disease. Is it punishment for wrongdoing? Some religions find this to be the answer. Poe’s intrigue in reincarnation may have been in that of his own immortality. Metaphysical events take place in The Tell-Tale-Heart.
The perpetrator is driven by some unknown source to reveal his evil deed. The paranoia he feels is very real to him. “I fancied a ringing in my ears[it] became more distinctI found that the noise was not within my earsIt is the beating of the hideous heart [of the old man]” (Poe 3). Ringing is heard only in the man’s head, but because a impetus has compelled him to believe otherwise he is inclined to reveal his misdeed. The source of the man’s “voices” is from a force within himself. One’s soul is an unexplainable power, which governs over the body. The murder of the old man is committed in passion.
Disregarding any rational thoughts the narrator is engaged in his own desires. His unconcern for mankind causes his own insanity. Even he can not live with his actions. The mind as a supernatural force, that dictates life, can only cope with so much. Poe himself experiences hallucinations from his illness, and abuse of alcohol. Years of defilement caused his body, and mind to break down. At one point in time Poe raved “for protection from an imaginary army of conspirators disguised as ‘loungers'” (Mankowitz 232). Constant weight on ones mind can lead to insanity. Human beings can lose control of their lives.
The Tell-Tale-Heart illustrates the human spirit as a mysterious and unexplainable force. Poe’s life was full of turmoil, which inevitably caused his madness. The enveloping force of evil drives Montressor to commit murder in The Cask of Amontillado. If supernatural is used in its broadest sense to mean “unexplained” then the force that impels Montressor’s lack of humanity is indeed supernatural. Evil, as a uninhibited force propels the callous, vile act. When evil is introduced as a possible catalyst one can, at least in some sense, comprehend what drives Montressor’s act of revenge.
With out this force revenge is less likely to be taken to the extremes in this story. Fortunato, the unsuspecting victim, is blindly led to his death via a premeditated plan. Montressor guides him on the journey, patronizing him all the way. The torture that is put upon him is horrendous. He is entombed alive, and left to die. The mind can be a torturous device when all hope is stripped away. Fortunado must wait for death, all the while reliving his regrets. Montressor states “a brief moment I hesitate–I trembledBut the thought of an instant reassured me.
I placed my hand upon the solid fabric of the catacombs, and felt satisfied” (Poe 8). For an instant his humanity is unveiled, but quickly covered again. He has no problem leaving his victim in the catacombs to die. Poe does an excellent job creating a character of evil. Many of his literary works deal with the origin of evil. Montressor’s need for revenge causes him to give himself to the dark side. Perversity is a theme that exists within the three stories at hand. When one takes pleasure in something that is knowingly wrong it is perverse. It exhibits a blatant lack of humanity.
Delectation in the grotesque is also sinful. Committing or witnessing acts of mutilation or murder is depraved. Someone has to be out of balance to seriously consider such ignominious acts. Poe uses perversity to shock, and disgust the reader. Reading about such atrocities brings the reader to a different level of cognition. One sees into the mind of a character that is distorted, and gets a direct show of what is motivating him or her. The main character in The Black Cat kills his wife without any compunction. After he “buried the axe in her brain,” his only apprehension is of how to conceal the crime (Poe 3).
He states “many projects entered my mind,” attesting to his search for the perfect burial place. The man commits a bloody, brutal murder of a loved one, but is only concerned with himself. Delight is actually taken in the death, because he is able to get a good night sleep. “The guilt of my dark deed disturbed me but little;” he has no regrets and nothing to fret about. Pleasure is obtained from the death, not the act, but the rewards of it. Hiding the body in the false chimney illustrates his lack of respect for his wife. He is pleased with himself for finding such a clever hiding place, but she is not attributed a proper burial.
Perversity embodies this man. He is disturbed. Montressor, in The Cask of Amontillado, is a pervert. He enjoys watching Fortunato suffer. Pleasure seeps from his spirit when Fortunato exclaims “Ha! ha! ha! –he! he! –a very good joke indeed–an excellent jest. We will have many a rich laugh about itLet us be gone” (Poe 7). The man is using his last fragment of hope, but Montressor plays with him. He likes to hear the suffering in the voice of his victim. He gets off on causing pain. Replying to Fortunato’s plea he mimics “Yes, let us be gone,” with contempt in his voice (Poe 7).
Montressor has broken another man’s spirit, and taken away his life. This makes him happy, because he has upheld a troublesome family motto “Nemo me impune lacessit” (“No one assails me with impunity”) (Poe 4). A twisted outdated motto causes the death of Fortunato. The burying of a live body conjures up images of desperation and hopelessness of the victim. Montrtessor has all of the power. He picks the time and place where Fortunato will meet his end. Obvious disregard of life is maniacal. The perpetrator in The Tell-Tale-Heart states clearly that he enjoys the act of killing.
In an instant I dragged him to the floor, and pulled the heavy bed over him, I then smiled gaily, to find the deed so far gone” (Poe2). This sick individual not only kills the old man, but he “dismembers the corpse. [He] cut off the head and the arms and the legs” (Poe 2). He seems to take pride in his clever cover up of the annihilation bragging “There was nothing to wash out –no stain of any kind –no blood spot whatever. I had been too wary for that. A tub had caught all -ha! ha! ” (Poe 3). This man is a true sociopath, and psychotic. Any act one can imagine being grotesque he has committed.
This is a person who is not in his right mind. His acts are shocking and almost unbelievable, but not quite. There are deranged people who commit vile, meaningless acts of violence just because. The scariest part about this perversity is that it does happen, people can be this repugnant. The ultimate payback for wrongdoing is retribution. It is a means by which one releases anger. When revenge is taken, the outcome is satisfaction. Power is definitely associated with it. The need to be the dominating figure in a relationship fuels the desire.
Sometimes retribution is directed at personage who has little to do with what is being avenged. The person may be representative of a greater cause. He or she is just an outlet for abuse. It feels good to get even with someone, even if it is not the source of the problem. Poe has many problems that he can not fix. This angers him. He does not understand why he is afflicted with so much grief. The Black Cat is a story that revolves around revenge. It is a more complex then first observed. The man is not lashing out at his animals because they have done something to offend him.
The abuse is given because the animals can not fight back. They are defenseless against the brute force. He is really angry at society, but can not tap the proper channels to vent his rage. “I grew, day by day, more moody, more irritable, more regardless of the feelings of others. I suffered myself to use intemperate language to my At length, I even offeredpersonal violence” (Poe 1). He has grown cold throughout the years losing the lust for life he once had. He needs to seek refuge from the outside world. “My disease grew upon me-for what disease is like Alcohol (Poe 1).
Alcohol gives him a place to hide and, contributes to his lunacy. Under the influence he becomes a monster. Poe himself “uses alcohol as an anesthetic to ease other problems, both physical and emotional” (Mankowitz 236). He feels isolated from society parallel to the nameless man in this story. Deliberately sinning allows the man to feel power. He is in control of his actions. I “hung it because I knew that it had loved me, and because I knew that in so doing I was committing a sin” (Poe 2). Challenging a system of beliefs questions its existence. He is almost daring a higher power to punish him.
This will let him know if there is something to believe in. He is a lost soul among many that is yearning for something to believe in. Poe is facing death, because of all of the pain he has gone through he too questions God. How could God let him suffer, and take his life so soon? He can not answer this, but his stories do scream the question. Retribution against death is a focus in The Tell-Tale-Heart. The old man is symbolic of death. “He had the eye of a vulture–a pale blue eye, with a film over it. Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold (Poe 1). The vulture is a bird that only preys upon the dead.
Blood running cold is associated with a corpse; therefore, death. His words prove that the eye is expiration looking him in the face. “He was still sitting up in bed listening; –just as I have done, night after night, hearkening to death watches on the wall” (Poe 1). Killing the old man is retribution for fear of death. He is a constant reminder of the perpetrator’s greatest fear. Wondering when cessation is going to occur can drive a man insane. “His eye would trouble me no more,” illustrates that the man has defeated death (Poe 2). This is ironic because death will always triumph in the end.
The killing may give the man temporary solace from his fear, but it can not last. Poe’s illness causes him to constantly deal with the coming of his end. He too wishes there were something he can do to ward it off. Obviously this is not possible. The Cask of Amontillado revels in revenge based on upholding one’s family motto. Fortunato disrespected Montressor, “the thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as best I could, but heventured upon insult” (Poe 1). Montressor is an extremely proud man. He takes the comments to heart, and is disturbed by them. His need for revenge is innate.
The need is genetic, based on the family motto, which states “No one assails me with impunity”. He is compelled to commit murder to honor his family name. Montressor must seek his resolution very mechanically. “A wrong is unredressed when retribution overtakes its redresser. It is equally unredressed when the avenger fails to make himself felt as such to him who has done the wrong” (Poe 1). Fortunado must not know that he is seeking revenge, but when the plot is revealed it is imperative that he takes credit for the act. Montressor’s act of murder is calculated; thus, chillingly horrifying. The organization insures that Fortunado is doomed.
Poe’s interest in burial motifs allows him to explore the same themes, but using different premises. Poe’s free and out of the ordinary style is very successful in incorporating the supernatural, perverse, and retribution into his work. He maintains his interest as well as the reader’s by including subjects that are not prevalent. It is shocking, disturbing, and challenging to read. Some of Poe’s literature has obvious relations to his own life, and how he coped with the problems that faced him. Having problems in ones life can escalate the soul to accomplish great things. Poe’s lifestyle is very much a part of style.