A sentence is defined as a sentence structure in the grammar, which sentence consists of a main sentence and at least one or more subordinate sentences. A main sentence is a sentence that can stand alone and is generally formed of subject, predicate, and object. A subordinate clause can not stand alone and is therefore always subordinated to a main sentence. Accordingly, each sentence, which consists not only of one main sentence or several main sentences (see series of sentences), is usually a sentence structure. Such sentence structures can be used as stylistic means, and one speaks of a hypotaxis.
Main clause and subordinate clause
In order to understand exactly how a sentence structure works and what distinguishes it from a sentence series, it is extremely important to know what are the main sentences and minorities, how they relate, and why they can stand alone or not.
A main sentence is a sentence that is grammatically complete. Such a sentence can therefore stand alone and consists mostly of subject, predicate, and object. In addition, the finite verb is in second place, and only in a few cases, namely, in commands and yes / no questions. A simple example:
The girl wins the competition.
The above example sentence is a principal sentence. It is made up of a subject, a predicate, and an object. We recognize that it is a principal proposition, since the finite verb (ie, the bent verb) is in the second place, and that this theorem can stand alone. This means that it is grammatically complete and for this reason no longer needs any supplementation. To the subordinate sentence:
The girl wins the competition,
+ because (conjunction)
it has trained.
The subordinate clause, as well as the main clause, is necessarily constituted by the subject and the predicate, whereby, of course, it can also include further clauses. We recognize him by saying that the finite verb is at the end, that it is separated from the main sentence by a comma, and that it does not work alone, so it depends on the main set.
It is important that the order is arbitrary. A sentence does not have to begin with the main rate, but can also begin with the subordinate clause. Then the finite verb of the main sentence is at the beginning of the main sentence. From our example:
NS: Because it has trained,
HS: the girl wins the competition.
Our example has now become a propositional proposition. For it is true that sentences consisting of at least one subordinate clause are designated as propositional propositions. The constellations HS + NS and NS + HS are therefore sentence structures. The constellation HS + HS would, however, be a set of sentences.
Note: In the above section, main and subsidiary sentences were briefly explained, whereby fundamental things were assumed. If you are not yet familiar with individual content, it is advisable to look it up in the index directory. It is scarcely possible to recognize a propositional proposition if it is unclear what the principal and subsidiary proposition are and what they consist of.
→ Articles: main clause, subordinate clause, clause
Examples of the sentence structure
We have now seen the extent to which the subordinate clause is subordinate to the main clause and is dependent on it. If we find a theorem consisting of a principal proposition and one or more subsidiary propositions, this is a propositional proposition. Finally, let’s look at some examples.
HS: I love you,
NS: because you are wonderful.
The above example, however, consists of a main clause (HS), which is subordinated to a subordinate clause (NS). We recognize the subordinate clause that the finite verb is (at the end of the sentence) and can not stand alone, and consequently depends on the main set. A sentence structure can consist of any number of subsidiary sentences.
HS: I love you,
NS: because it is wonderful,
NS: How you laugh.
This sentence structure consists of a main sentence, which is subordinated to two subsidiary sentences. It is striking that the second subordinate clause does not subordinate itself to the main clause itself, but to the previous clause. Such a concatenation could be carried on to the infinite. Further examples can be found in the following fold-out box.
Further examples of sentence structures (expand!)
The hypotaxy is a stylistic device. It is important that each sentence in which a subordinate clause is subordinated to a main clause can be named hypotaxes. In a poem analysis, however, we would not yet understand it as a stylistic device, since most sentences work like this. Rather, the use of subordinate sentences is so strongly pronounced that it creates long sentences, which is a linguistic conspicuousness (see Bandwurmsatz).
As he could hardly wait to see his family and friends, who lived hundreds of miles away, so he was very seldom to see them, he hurried to get the first train home.
The above example is single