Whoever makes a thesis (assertion) must somehow justify it. The meaning or strength of a thesis depends on the arguments, that is, the evidence, which can be found for them. In this context one speaks also of the quality of the arguments. There are different ways to argue. In this article we would like to present typical arguments. These are referred to as argument types.
The fact that we recognize such types of argument is important for a number of paper forms at school as well as at universities. For example, a large part of speech analysis and factual analysis is the exact investigation of the respective argumentative structure and the naming and knowledge of the respective argument types (→ arguments).
Argument types (list)
Argument type Example Function
Factual argument “70% of all pupils are students or students.” The formulated claim is supported by a verifiable and verifiable factual statement. This is undisputed and is understandable for the recipient of the thesis.
Normative argument “Cultural values, for example, writing, must be passed on to the next generation.” The thesis is strengthened by the fact that widespread value standards (norms) serve as a basis. These standards are generally accepted.
Authority word “is one of the best pages to sharpen your own ability to teach in German,” emphasized the Duden’s board of directors. “An authority is used to support this opinion. Usually these are instances that are known to the recipient and are sizes in their area.
Analogizing argument “From the best screenplay, nothing will happen if each actor wants to take the lead role and thinks only of himself. This also applies to discussions. “The current topic of the argument is linked to another area. Typically, this is similar to the original, so a comparison works.
Indirect argument “Critics of learning pages think books are more appropriate. The fact is that the grades of the students have improved since the Internet. “The opponent’s argument is attacked. Thus, one’s own thesis is supported by countering the counter-position.
Plausibility argument: “I am, of course, taking care of my problems. As the saying goes? Everyone is the next one! “The statement is justified by the fact that it appears to be” plausible “, that is, to the reader or listener.
Note: These types of arguments are all valid and can support and support a thesis. However, the examples are devised and have not been tested for accuracy.
The types of argument presented are, in principle, referred to as serious. However, there are other types of arguments that are considered untrustworthy. These have been known since ancient times and were mainly used in political debates. We would like to introduce you to them.
“Unsuccessful” argument types
Argument type Example Function
Argumentum ad baculum “These people have devoted the devil. Of course they can disagree. But do not they worry about their children? “The reasoning is based on the fears that the listener or reader is likely to feel or suspect of him.
Argumentum ad misericordiam “Before you turn against the President and dismiss him, you should consider how difficult his office is.” The thesis is supported by the fact that the reasons for this are based on compassion for something.
Argumentum ad populum “In the Middle Ages, almost everyone believed that the sun and the planets were circling around the earth and that the earth was immobile in space. So this can not be completely wrong. “Something is claimed as true, because it corresponds to the opinion of the majority of the relevant persons (public opinion).
Note: There are other types of arguments in rhetoric, and the ones mentioned are even more differentiated. For German lessons and the usual text analysis the presented are however usually sufficient.
Tip: Numerous stylistic figures can revive the argumentation and are used in the area of rhetoric. An overview can be found in the section “Styling agents”.