The appeal was originally the sign given with the drum or trumpet, on whose sound soldiers assembled, and also the orderly arrangement of soldiers. In linguistics, the appeal is part of interpersonal communication. This means the urgent and provocative reminder or a call and a call in general.
The term is borrowed from the French appel, which is due to the Latin appellar. These words can be retrieved by calling or calling. The translation thus clarifies what is at stake: namely, a kind of calling and also calling (and therefore speaking with another person). Let’s look at an example.
Animals are living creatures: Eat less meat!
The above example involves an appeal. Here it becomes clear what is the matter: the speaker asks the recipient (reader, listener) to something: to eat less meat. Such a request may be directed to either acting or not. In the above example the receiver is not supposed to act: he should not eat meat anymore.
The appeal always tries to influence the receiver. This is supposed to accept, do, believe, omit, etc. Appeals can be made nonverbally (without words) or verbally (with words). For example, if a drowning man jerked out of the water with his arm, he would non-verbally appeal to help him. If he were to call for help, the appeal would be verbal.
The appeal is possible in four forms: (1) Call, (2) Command, (3) Please, (4) Persuasion. However, it is sometimes difficult to separate these forms clearly. Let’s look at some examples.
(1) You can ask questions now.
(2) Come here. Immediately!
(3) Could you please help me?
(4) Come on! Have a beer with us.
The presented sample sentences are forms of the appeal, since they ask the addressee (recipient) to act. However, they differ in some aspects. The demand is between the order and the request that this is a question which has been emphasized.
The command calls directly for trade, is therefore an instruction and is usually presented between authorities and subordinates (teacher – student, master apprentice). The request is a courteously expressed wish, while the persuasion tries to seduce the opposite and sometimes appear manipulative. All forms of appeal are therefore very close together.
Note: However, all forms have in common that they ask the addressees, ie the recipient, to something. Either he should act or omit an action.
Communication model (Schulz von Thun)
Friedemann Schulz von Thun, a psychologist and communications scientist, developed a communication model, which he introduced in 1981: the four-ear model (also communication square or four-page model). Schulz von Thun points out that each message has four pages.
Who communicates as a person, thus communicating a message to an addressee, becomes effective in four ways. Each utterance contains, if the speaker is willing or not, an information (which is spoken about), a self-knowledge (the person who speaks of himself), a reference to the relation (as the speaker is to the addressee) from the addressee).
The four-ear model according to Friedemann Schulz von Thun shows the appeal side of a message.
The above graphic illustrates the principle and shows that every message according to Schulz von Thun has four sides. The content of the material is defined as things that are communicated at the material level: information about objects and processes in the world. The self-disclosure indicates what the sender is saying about himself or his current state of mind.
According to Schulz von Thun, two aspects are communicated by the relationship side of the message. On the one hand, the transmitter is communicated by the recipient and how he himself is related to the two. The last page, the appeal page, provides information about what the sender wants to do with his message at all, what he wants from the receiver. Let’s look at an example.
Let us imagine a man sitting with his wife eating. The woman cooked Königsberger Klopse and in the sauce swim numerous capers, which are typical for this dish. The caper is small and green and has been spreading for centuries as a spicy kitchen spice. The man sees the capers and asks: “What is the green in the sauce?”. He thus refers to the different levels:
There is something green.
Self-disclosure: I do not know what it is.
Relationship: You’ll know.
Call: Tell me what it is!
The man sometimes communicates these things to whom.