Ancient Greece is a peninsula located off the Mediterranean Sea, and is surrounded by several islands. Ancient Greece was made up of different types of government. There were two types of city states an oligarchy , which is ruled by a small group of citizens and a direct democracy ruled by the people . All citizens could make speeches and vote at the Assembly. The Council made up of 500 citizens made new laws which were debated in the Assembly . Only citizens could vote ,women , foreigners, slaves did not have the right to vote Religion and myths were very important in Greek citizens lives .
They used Gods and Goddess to explain things which happened in science and everyday life . They built temples to honor their Gods and Goddess and held the Olympics in honor of the king of the gods Zeus . The Parthenon was a temple built to honor the Goddess Athena . The people believed the Gods and Goddess would favor you if you gave them offerings such as gold ,silver ,and the fruit of the harvest .
A few of the Gods and Goddess were Zeus king of the gods ,Athena Goddess of wisdom, warfare, and the city , Apollo , god of the sun , light ,truth , music and , prophecy , Hades brother of Zeus and king of the under world and afterlife , and Poseidon, ruler of the seas . All of the gods and goddess lived at Mount Olympus the highest mountain in Greece . The Greeks had many occupations , traders , merchants , architects , philosophers, dramatists , sculptors , doctors , poets , astronomers and , physicists however ; each citizen protected the city state . Every citizen had a duty to defend the state as a hoplite, which is a heavily equipped warrior . They operated in a large rectangular formation of thousands of men all equal in rank .
The Greeks influenced the way we live today . The educated Greeks wanted xplanations for the world and things around them . hey made observations and came up with theories . These people were known as philosophers which means the love of wisdom Socrates , Plato , and Aristotle were famous philosophers . Hippocrates is known as the father of medicines today doctors take the Hippocratic Oath , named after him , which requires them to act ethically and morally . Anaxagras , an astronomer explained that a solar eclipse is caused by the moon passing between the earth and the sun blocking out the suns light . Literature was made up of myths and poems . The most famous Greek poet was Homer who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey .
A Greek theater which began in the marketplace with dances and songs was the start of the present day theater . Architecture was important in the Greek culture . There were three types Doric , simple whit thick sturdy columns , Ionic , a thinner column and , Corinthian thin columns with elaborate capitals decorated with acathus leaves . Life in Greece was different depending on where you lived . I would prefer to live in Athens because the military requirements are not as restrictive . In Athens rich boys ,at the age of seven , went to school to tudy reading , writing , arithmetic , music , and debating .
Poor boys did not go to school . Girls stayed at home and learned how to spin and weave from their mothers . The children did not have pencils , they used a stylus and a wax covered wooden tablet . Pebbles or an abacus was used to help with math . Boys participated in sports to honor the gods to help them prepare for the military . They played games such as knucklebones , which is similar to jacks and played music on a lyre , cymbals or kitharas , which was a harplike instrument. In Sparta they had a very militaristic government and trained for war during the ay .
At the age of seven boys trained to be soldiers . They learned how to use spears , swords and to help them become stronger they lived in all kinds of weather . They used sports to help them become better soldiers . If a man was married he would have to stay in the military for another ten years . Then he was free to live with his family . Spartan women had to learn how to use a spear and a sword , so they could prepare their sons for battle . The reason Sparta needed such a strong military was because they were afraid their slaves , called helatsas would rebel .