Cynicism originally meant the life-style of the ancient cynics, a philosophical current of antiquity. However, the term has now assumed a different meaning in the use of language. Whoever is cynical is highly mocking and violates his fellow human beings with his thoughts and utterances by disregarding or even ridiculing their moral values ​​as well as the social conventions. Cynicism is based on radical skepticism (critical doubts) and pursues the intention to recklessly reduce the values ​​and truths of others. Cynicism is related to irony and sarcasm, although there are differences. Continue reading “Cynicism”

Twin rhyme

A rhyme style is referred to as twins. In the twins’ rhyme, word sequences are rhymed with each other, which have exactly the same character material, which is also arranged identically. However, the letters in the rhyme are not separated at identical places, thus creating other words. If, for example, the word sequence Alter Buimer is separated differently, it becomes Old Reimer. These two word sequences would rhyme with one another and, as they use the same type of material in an identical sequence, would be a twins’ rhyme.
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A two-line is a poem that consists of two lines of verse or a very brief communication in authorities to speed up internal processes. This does not have to consist of two lines; rather, it is about keeping as short a time as possible and by dispensing with decorations. In lyric, there is the distich, which consists of hexameter and pentameter. Continue reading “Couplet”

Dilogy (Secondary)

A work, which is composed of two parts, is designated as a dilogy, also a second-hand, work. Such a dilogy can be a literary, cinematic, but also a musical work. However, the term is mostly used in connection with literary products (eg novels) as well as with regard to films. Often, the individual works of the second-hand work independently, which means that the action of the individual work is frequently completed in itself (see also: multipart). Continue reading “Dilogy (Secondary)”

Ikosalogy (Twenty Dividers)

An iconography, also a twentieth part, is an artistic work consisting of twenty interrelated parts. In the case of iconography, this can be a cinematic, literary or even musical piece, although there are only a few examples. It is essential for multi-parters of this kind that they do belong together, but generally function independently. This means that the action of the individual parts is mostly self-contained and is not interrupted abruptly by strong cliffhangers.

The term is derived from the Greek term εἴκοσι [eíkosi] for the cardinal number 20 and the noun logos for word or speech. Consequently, the iconos is literally a twenty-word or a twentieth, and in the meant sense a content consisting of twenty parts.

According to the “rule”, the technical terms for all other multi-part works, such as Dilogie for a second-hand, trilogy for a three-part or tetralogy for the four-parter, are also formed. The term is always composed of the Greek prefix for the corresponding numerical word (di-, tri-, tetra, penta- …) and the unit logie – derived from the noun logos for word

For the first time there were such divisions in Greek antiquity. For example, in the 5th century BC, The Great Dionysia took place to honor the god Dionysus. To this feast a poetry contest was organized, which was annually performed by three tragedy poets. Each poet, who was allowed to participate in this annual spectacle, presented three works, which were related together and were therefore called a trilogy. Later, this three-part was extended by a relaxing satyr play and thus to the tetralogy, whereby these terms were sustainably coined.

Nowadays these terms are, of course, no longer reserved for drama, and it is customary to describe other products of art, which consist of several parts and relate to one another in terms of content. In everyday life we ​​encounter especially the Secondary, the trilogy or the tetralogy, while Pentalogy, Hexalogy, Heptalogy and Ikosalogie are rather unusual.

Ikosalogie example

The Rougon-Macquart by Émile Zola (Literature)
The fortune of the Rougon family (La fortune des Rougon 1871)
The booty (La curée 1871)
The belly of Paris (Le ventre de Paris 1873)
The Conquest of Plassans (La conquête de Plassans, 1874)
The Sin of the Abbé Mouret (La faute de l’Abbé Mouret, 1875)
His Excellency Eugène Rougon (Son excellence Eugène Rougon 1876)
The assassin (L’Assommoir 1877)
A leaf of love (Une page d’amour 1878)
Nana (Nana 1880)
A fine house (Pot-Bouille 1882)
The paradise of the ladies (Au bonheur des dames 1883)
The joy of life (La joie de vivre 1884)
Germinal (Germinal 1885)
The work (L’œuvre 1886)
The Earth (La terre 1887)
The dream (Le rêve 1888)
The Beast in Man / The Beast in Man (La bête humaine 1890)
The money (L’argent 1891)
The collapse (La débâcle 1892)
Doctor Pascal (Le docteur Pascal 1893)



Tonguebreakers are termed word sequences whose pronunciation is difficult and presents a challenge even for native speakers. In most cases this is a sequence of similar words, but they differ in certain syllables and are designed to make the speaker promise. Tongue breakers are often based on the same sound, alliteration or the combination of unusual words. Tongue breakers are generally called for amusement, but can also serve as an articulation exercise for moderators and professional speakers, or be used in spokespersons (see children’s rhymes). Continue reading “Tongue-twister”

Dirty joke

Zote is an indecent, humorous joke or a slippery, joking story that ends in a pointed way. The zote commonly violates good taste, often has a sexual content and is mostly in prose. Zoten is related to the joke, the joke, and the anecdote, even though they are fundamentally not reserved for any literary genre. Continue reading “Dirty joke”


A rhetorical stylistic device is called Zeugma. The Zeugma originally described that the verb of a sentence is related to several objects. In the widest sense, however, the fact that a sentence part of the sentence refers to various words, word sequences or other sentences is called for. The stuffma is a form of the syllepse and a stylistic word-saving (cf. Brachylogie). Continue reading “Zeugma”

Central perspective

The central perspective, also the front perspective, is a way of creating space depth on a two-dimensional surface, which acts as if the space were three-dimensional. The central perspective creates the impression that the represented objects of an image behave as they would in reality under visual conditions. In this case, all the lines which enter the depth of the space run towards a vanishing point, which lies on the horizontal line. In this connection we speak of a shortening, since the lines which go into the depth are shown more briefly. The central perspective was developed in the Renaissance, which made the person depicted more realistic. Continue reading “Central perspective”

Caesura rhyme

A rhyme-form in memory is called a caesura-rhyme. Basically, three forms of the caesura rhyme are distinguished. Either here the words before the caesura of a line or the words before the caesura of two verses. In addition, the rhyme between a word before a caesura within the verse and the verse is called caesura rhyme. Continue reading “Caesura rhyme”